Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic. Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written. When conducting examinations, forensic document examiners must have known specimens to which they compare the material in question. These samples may come from any number of known sources, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine. In cases involving handwriting, samples are usually divided into two types: requested writing specimens and collected writing specimens.
Foundations of Forensic Document Analysis : Theory and Practice
Examinations are conducted to determine the manner in which a document was prepared, by whom it was executed, when it was prepared and if changes have occurred since its production. Our areas of expertise cover:. A high standard of professional service is maintained using a modern and fully equipped document laboratory. A wide variety of documents are routinely submitted to our laboratory for analysis on equipment including the: Wild Leitz binocular stereomicroscope used in conjunction with a Volpi Intralux fibre optic light source for the examination of all documents under relatively low magnification in the range of 6x to 40x.
The development of a reliable technique for the absolute dating of paper documents is still now a relevant, unsolved, question for forensic purposes. Standard.
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Forensic Document Examiner Seattle
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Foundations of Forensic Document Analysis by Michael J. Allen, x x 13mm | g; Publication date 28 Sep ; Publisher John Wiley & Sons Inc.
The visual appearance of inks is only one clue to their composition. Sometimes two inks can look identical to the naked eye but further tests may be able to distinguish between them. Where possible non-destructive tests are used. For example inks can be examined using infra red or ultraviolet reflectance at various wavelengths or using visible light but examining emissions from the ink in the infra red area of the spectrum infra red luminescence.
Our examiners use an instrument known as a VSC HR to carry out non-destructive specialised lighting examinations. Inks may also be distinguished by other more complex chemical tests but these are likely to be destructive to some extent. Differentiating inks can be important in cases where a document is suspected of having been altered. A classic example is where a zero is added to a cheque making the value ten times as much. The ‘dating‘ of inks is a hugely complex area and depends to a large extent on the conditions used to store the document that bears the ink.
Many factors affect the apparent ageing of ink including: exposure to light, heat, humidity and thickness of ink line. For these reasons a direct dating of ink lines is seldom carried out by this Laboratory. Dating The ‘dating‘ of inks is a hugely complex area and depends to a large extent on the conditions used to store the document that bears the ink.
Forensic document examiners are an essential part of the success of the forensic science community. Their main responsibility is examining written, typed, or printed documents using a scientific methodology and equipment. Their essential responsibilities go beyond evaluating different documents. They prepare demonstrative exhibits, write expert reports, and state their opinions regarding the documents which are being analyzed. This means they testify in court proceedings if the case goes to trial.
Forensic Dynamics LLC offers forensic document services in Seattle, WA to a document, identifying printing processes, ascertaining the date of a document.
Can an examination be conducted of a signature or handwriting from only a photocopy? Yes, but if it is possible to obtain the original it allows a more thorough examination of the document and the circumstances of its production. The possibility of a tracing of a machine copy transfer forgery cannot be ruled out. Is it possible to date pencil or typewritten documents? Yes, in some cases. Is it possible to determine when a questioned document was produced?
Yes, through several different methods that can be conducted in our laboratory. Some Methods Dating for Handwritten documents 1 Dating of the ink 2 Dating of the paper 3 Impressions found and sequencing of writing with impressions. Some Methods for Dating Photocopied documents 1 By comparing the unique photocopy damage pattern that changes over time, to a series of documents of unquestioned date from the same office.
[Entomology and forensic medicine. Time of death dating from photographic documents].
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Journal: International Journal of Forensic Document Examiners Volume:5 Dated:December/January Pages Editor(s): Joel S. Harris. Date Published.
Follow me:. About the Expert Offices: San Luis Obispo, CA-GFS is a private forensic lab, specializing in ink dating, forensic ink dating, ink age, questioned documents, fraud, forgery, art age determination, ink, paper, handwriting, fingerprints, counterfeiting, piracy, crime scenes, Daubert and court preparation. Full service document laboratory. We offer a first rate and on-call response to any investigative situation that you may encounter.
Our commitment is to provide clients with effective, timely, cost effective services by use of experienced forensic and investigative teams. We are a proud firm. We have successfully completed a myriad of forensic examinations and investigations for our clients, worldwide, for the past 35 years. Stewart has worked for the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years.
During his career he has worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e. John Demjanjuk, a.
Dating of Documents
To help the document examiner support her opinion satisfactorily to the court, provide her with as many valid exemplars as possible at the beginning of the case. Exemplars, also called standards, are legally admissible authentic samples of handwriting used for comparison with questioned writing. They are used by the document examiner to enable her to form an opinion concerning the authenticity of handwriting in dispute. There are two kinds of exemplars informal which are documents previously executed and known to be genuine and formal which are request writing samples.
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Have questions? Give us a call IPS Testing is able to determine likely age ranges for paper products by using wood fibers, pulping chemistry, paper additives and surface treatments to serve as dating markers. Our experienced fiber science team, led by Walter Rantanen, has developed an international reputation for paper and document forensics. While exact age dating of papers is not possible, the process is often able to exclude samples as being made in the time period of question.
Walter Rantanen has developed a large database of paper with known ages.